Nam Sơn - người đặt nền móng cho hội họa Việt Nam

Năm 1925, tại Hà Nội, Trường Mỹ thuật Đông Dương (MTĐD) chính thức được thành lập. Đây là một sự kiện đối với nền mỹ thuật khu vực Đông Nam Á và Việt Nam nói riêng. Một trong hai nhân vật có công sáng lập trường là họa sư Nam Sơn. Nguồn: http://www.baobinhdinh.com.vn/vanhoa-nghethuat/2005/2/6091/


Chợ gạo bên hữu ngạn sông Hồng (mực nho năm 1930).

 

 

Nam Sơn tên thật là Nguyễn Vạn Thọ. Sinh ra và lớn lên trong một gia đình khá giả ở đất Hà Thành, Nam Sơn có điều kiện để tiếp cận, học hỏi về mỹ thuật. Hầu như toàn bộ những năm tháng của tuổi thiếu thời cậu bé Nguyễn Vạn Thọ đã tự mày mò học hỏi qua sách báo. Tuy tự học, song Nguyễn Vạn Thọ đã nắm bắt khá vững vàng kỹ thuật hình họa và lối sử dụng màu sắc của nền hội họa phương Tây. Vì vậy, ngay từ những năm thập kỷ đầu tiên của thế kỷ XX, bút danh Nam Sơn đã được nhiều người yêu nghệ thuật biết đến. Đồng thời, hai chữ Nam Sơn cũng chứng tỏ tư cách nghệ thuật, sự tự tôn dân tộc của Nguyễn Vạn Thọ. Ngoài việc sáng tác hội họa, Nguyễn Vạn Thọ còn cộng tác, vẽ minh họa cho một số tờ báo, tạp chí lớn, trong đó có các tờ Nam Phong, Đông Dương… và một số sách giáo khoa, như Cách Trí, Quốc văn…
Năm 1923 có thể coi là bước ngoặt đối với cuộc đời và sự nghiệp của Nam Sơn - Nguyễn Vạn Thọ. Lần đầu tiên, Nam Sơn đã tổ chức trưng bày triển lãm tranh của mình tại Nhà Đấu xảo ở đường Gambetta (tức đường Trần Hưng Đạo - Hà Nội ngày nay). Đây là cuộc đấu xảo lần thứ 3 và là đấu xảo đầu tiên do chính người Việt Nam tổ chức. Cùng tham gia trưng bày, triển lãm tranh với Nam Sơn còn có nhà điêu khắc Nguyễn Đức Thục và họa sĩ Thang Trần Phềnh. Tại triển lãm, Nam Sơn giới thiệu 4 tác phẩm sơn dầu, gồm: Ông già Kim Liên, Nhà nho, Tĩnh vật và Chân dung người phụ nữ Bắc Kỳ. Tất cả 4 tác phẩm trên đều được thể hiện theo lối vẽ của hội họa cổ điển Âu châu, với khả năng hình họa và cách sử dụng màu sắc hài hòa. Những tác phẩm của Nam Sơn bày tại triển lãm đã gây xôn xao dư luận đương thời. Trên tờ Nam Phong (số 78, tháng 2-1923), tác giả Thượng Chi viết: "…Ông Nguyễn Vạn Thọ, hiệu Nam Sơn cũng là tay vẽ sơn dầu giỏi. Nhưng lối vẽ của ông "khí Tây" quá. Bức vẽ ông nhà nho xem đã có vẻ linh hoạt lắm, còn bức vẽ cái liễn, con dao và mấy quả tráng miệng dù tả thực hệt nhưng quyết không hợp với con mắt người Nam ta"
Hơn 1 năm sau (1925), lịch sử mỹ thuật đánh dấu một sự kiện quan trọng. Đó là sự ra đời của trường Cao đẳng MTĐD. Như trên đã đề cập, cùng với họa sư người Pháp - ông Victor Tacdieu, họa sư Nam Sơn được xem là người đồng sáng lập trường này. Thậm chí, chính Nam Sơn là người đã đưa ra ý tưởng thành lập trường MTĐD. Số là, đầu thập kỷ 20, "duyên phận" đã đưa đẩy cho Nam Sơn và Tacdieu gặp nhau tại Hà Nội. Là một người tinh thông cả Hán học và Tây học, Nam Sơn đã giúp Tacdieu tìm hiểu về nền nghệ thuật truyền thống dân gian của người An Nam, qua điêu khắc đình, chùa và tranh dân gian… Đồng thời, bằng chính tác phẩm hội họa đầy tài năng của mình, Nam Sơn đã thuyết phục được Victor Tacdieu vận động chính phủ bảo hộ Pháp cho mở trường MTĐD. Năm 1924, sau khi Quyết định thành lập trường được toàn quyền Mertin ký, cùng với Victor Tacdieu, Nam Sơn sang Paris để tiến hành việc tuyển người và mua vật liệu cho trường. Nhân dịp này, ông đã tranh thủ tu nghiệp tại trường Cao đẳng Mỹ thuật Paris và trường Trang trí quốc gia Paris. Năm 1925, do Victor Tacdieu bị ốm, từ Paris trở về, cùng với họa sĩ Inguimberty, Nam Sơn đã tiến hành chiêu sinh và tổ chức khai giảng khóa đầu tiên của trường MTĐD. Sự kiện trên được sách Những trường Nghệ thuật Đông Dương (do chính quyền Đông Dương xuất bản tại Hà Nội năm 1937) ghi nhận: "Việc dạy vẽ hình họa và trang trí do một giáo sư chuyên ngành bậc 2 - ông Nam Sơn là một trong 2 người sáng lập trường MTĐD… Ông đạt được thành quả đáng khen ngợi trong việc đào tạo giáo dục và đóng góp một phần quan trọng trong việc phục hưng nền mỹ thuật truyền thống An Nam, đồng thời cũng là chủ thuyết và hiến chương cho toàn trường".
Từ ngôi trường này và dưới sự hướng dẫn của họa sư Nam Sơn, những họa sĩ đầu đàn của nền mỹ thuật Việt Nam đã được đào tạo và trưởng thành, như Nguyễn Phan Chánh, Lê Phổ, Mai Trung Thứ, Lê Thị Lựu, Tô Ngọc Vân, Trần Văn Cẩn, Nguyễn Đỗ Cung…
Không chỉ đóng vai trò "đặt nền móng" cho hội họa Việt Nam cận hiện đại, họa sư Nam Sơn còn là người đã có công đưa tên tuổi của mỹ thuật dân tộc ra với thế giới. Ngay từ năm 1927, Nam Sơn là người Việt Nam đầu tiên được phong giáo sư cấp 2. Ông cũng là họa sĩ Việt Nam đầu tiên đoạt được các giải thưởng quốc tế và có tranh lưu trữ tại bảo tàng mỹ thuật nước ngoài. Năm 1930, tác phẩm Cò trắng và cá vàng của Nam Sơn đoạt Bằng khen của Salon de Rome và năm 1932 tác phẩm Chân dung mẹ tôi đoạt Huy chương bạc của Salon de Rome. Là một trong những họa sĩ đầu tiên vận dụng, chuyển tải lối vẽ của hội họa phương Tây vào Việt Nam, song Nam Sơn vẫn giữ gốc rễ của nghệ thuật dân tộc. Với chất liệu sơn dầu nhưng trong hầu hết tác phẩm của Nam Sơn đều là hình ảnh của đất nước, con người Việt Nam và đời sống của nhân dân lao động. Không chỉ có vậy, những năm thập niên 60-70, mặc dù tuổi cao, Nam Sơn vẫn tiếp tục vẽ với những tác phẩm ca ngợi cuộc sống thanh bình của đất nước. Tác phẩm Mơ ngày thống nhất (chì nâu 79x94cm) vẽ về Hồ Chủ tịch là một bước chuyển lớn đối với sự nghiệp của Nam Sơn.
Đặc biệt, mới đây, trên mạng internet, tại địa chỉ: http://www.culture.Fr./documentation/arcade/Index/autr-41.htm Bộ Văn hóa Cộng hòa Pháp đã công bố một tài liệu (gồm 57 trang) của Cục Lưu trữ quốc gia Pháp - Trung tâm lịch sử về danh sách các nghệ sĩ của các nước trên thế giới được Nhà nước Pháp mua tác phẩm đưa vào các bảo tàng quốc gia Pháp trưng bày từ xưa đến nay. Theo đó, trong số 10.140 danh họa (trong đó có cả Léonerd de Vinci, Titien, Raphael, Rembrandt, Goya, David, Degas, Rodin, Matisse…), có tên của họa sư Nam Sơn, với tác phẩm Hồng Hà hữu ngạn mãi mại mễ xứ (Chợ gạo bên hữu ngạn sông Hồng - mực nho năm 1930). Đây cũng là họa sĩ Việt Nam duy nhất có tên trong danh sách này. Thật là một vinh dự lớn đối với nền mỹ thuật Việt Nam.
Họa sư Nam Sơn - Nguyễn Vạn Thọ qua đời vào tháng 4 năm 1973. Với 83 tuổi đời và hơn 60 tuổi nghề, họa sư Nam Sơn đã có nhiều đóng góp cho nền mỹ thuật Việt Nam. Ông mãi mãi được giới mỹ thuật tôn vinh là người đặt nền móng cho nền hội họa Việt Nam cận hiện đại.
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