Sự nhầm lẫn của một giáo sư

SỰ NHẦM LẪN CỦA MỘT GIÁO SƯ
(Bàn về cuốn tiếng Việt 1 của GS Hồ Ngọc Đại)
Trần Đình Sử
___________

Tôi với GS Đại có chút đồng hương, đã từng học ở trại Thiếu sinh Quảng Trị. Tôi không có mâu thuẫn gì với anh Đại. Tôi cũng tán thành quan niệm mỗi ngày đến trường là một niềm vui, giáo dục học sinh để nó phải trở thành chính nó. “lấy HS làm trung tâm”… Nhưng đó là nói ở của miệng cho hay thôi, chứ hiểu cho đúng các mệnh đề ấy không dễ, và thể hiện trong chương trình với SGK thế nào mới thật là khó.
Tôi biết chắc anh Hồ Ngọc Đại chưa hề có một chương trình hoàn bị cho các môn học từ lớp 1 đến lớp 12. Cách dạy thực nghiệm của anh là nghĩ đến đâu dạy đến đó, chưa có hệ thống gì. Nếu ai không tin, đề nghị anh Đại công khai chương trình đầy đủ của anh cho mọi người biết và nhận xét, thẩm định. Và xin anh Đại đừng tự huyễn hoặc rằng không ai có đủ trình độ thẩm định sách của anh. Đó là nói về Chương trình, còn nhìn SGK của anh thì người ta thấy còn lâu mới đạt được yêu cầu đó, vì như SGK Tiếng Việt 1 công nghệ có quá nhiều sai sót ấu trĩ.
GS Hồ Ngọc Đại đi đâu cũng nói SGK tiếng Việt 1công nghệ của ông là môn khoa học, đã là khoa học thì phải học khái niệm. Tiếng Việt 1 theo ông, chỉ học một khái niệm , đó là cấu trúc ngữ âm của tiếng Việt. Vậy chữ viết là gì? Là vật thay thế cho âm là vật thật. Để học cấu trúc ngữ âm, học sinh chỉ học âm tiết, không học nghĩa, bởi nếu học nghĩa thì hoá ra học từ, mà theo ông đó là nội dung của lớp 2. Bài học của ông là một không gian chân không về nghĩa. Quy tắc chính tả là các quy ước. Sách của ông dạy HS phân biệt âm và chữ, tập đọc vần và viết theo vần, kết hợp dạy chính tả và cố nhiên là HS biết đọc và biết các quy tắc chính tả. Đây là một ưu điểm của SGK này. Nhưng HS đọc mà không hiểu nghĩa là một thiếu sót lớn. Cách dạy theo công nghệ là GV thực hiện răm rắp theo SGV, y như người thợ dạy một cách máy móc (xem hướng dẫn của SGV). Sách CN không đòi hỏi (thậm chí cấm GV thay đổi các quy định của SGV) GV được hình dung như một robot, cho nên GV lười và kém có thể thích SGK này. Sách CNGD không yêu cầu cha mẹ HS tham gia phối hợp. Về thực tiễn, nghe nói cách dạy này học chắc, không tái mù. Nhưng xin hỏi ai xác nhận điều này, có các khảo sát và đánh giá? Chỉ là do các anh kêu to lên mà thôi. Yêu cầu học chữ không chỉ để chống tái mù. Theo tôi cần có sự kiểm định khách quan, có đối chứng với SGK tiếng Việt 1 khác mới khoa học. Tôi nghe nói Viện KHGD đã nghiên cứu tiếng Việt 1 của CNGD, nhưng không đối chứng thì có giá trị gì? Tôi cũng nghe nói một số GV kêu phải thêm giờ thì mới dạy được, và các báo cáo kết quả sử dụng sách CNGD gửi lên trên trước đây do nhiều lí do còn thiếu khách quan, trong đó có vai trò của vụ chỉ đạo bậc học, nhiều cán bộ ở vụ Tiểu học đều là người của GS Đại cầm lái. Cần minh bạch với cái huyền thoại này.
Về lí thuyết, quan niệm của GS Đại còn nhiều khiếm khuyết nghiêm trọng không thể chấp nhận đuợc.
1. Sách tiếng Việt 1 không phải là sách khoa học. Chỉ có ngành ngữ học, Việt ngữ học, ngữ âm học mới là khoa học. Còn SGK Tiếng Việt là sách học tiếng Việt trong nhà trường, nhằm dạy HS đọc chữ, viết chữ đúng chính tả, đọc hiểu nghĩa, biết nói, viết các bài văn bằng tiếng Việt. Nó có nội dung khoa học và các nội dung khác như đạo đức, thẩm mĩ, các tri thức cảm tính, các bài thơ, bài văn, không phải đều là khoa học cả. Xem SGK Tiếng Việt 1 là khoa học là một ngộ nhận ấu trĩ.. HS lớp 1 chưa cần học khoa học cực đoan như thế. Ông cho HS học hết cấu trúc ngữ âm tiếng Việt như âm, âm đầu, âm đệm, âm chính, âm cuối, âm đôi, những khái niệm chỉ ở đại học mới học. Ông lại cho HS học thêm các khái niệm của riêng ông như vật thật, vật thay thế, lên lớp trên các khái niệm triết học của riêng ông càng nhiều. Ông lại dạy hết các quy tăc chính tả tiếng Việt, kể cả chính tả ngữ nghĩa cho HS lớp 1. Thật là quá tải. Đó là do quan niệm dạy khoa học cho HS lớp 1 mà nên.
2. Dạy học Tiếng Việt , dù dạy gì, đều là dạy HS năng lực sử dụng tiếng Việt: đọc, viết, nói, nghe, suy nghĩ, không phải nghiên cứu tiếng Việt. Phương pháp của nó là phương pháp giao tiếp: Đọc, viết, nói nghe, hỏi đáp những điều có nghĩa.
Còn chỉ học đọc âm, viết đúng chính tả mà không hiểu nghĩa, không biết nói thì đó là một yêu cầu quá thấp, không phải yêu cầu học tiếng. Sách thiếu hẳn phần kể chuyện, nói, nghe, chào hỏi.
3. SGK dạy cho HS phải có nội dung tư tưởng, đạo đức. SGK của GS Đại đầy rẫy những từ phản cảm như ăn quỵt, hàng thịt nguýt hàng cá, củ rủ cù rù, (Xem lại bài của Đao Tiến Thi Về ngữ liệu trong Tiếng Việt 1 CNGD.).
4. Sách yêu cầu HS đọc nhiều văn bản mà các em – với lứa tuổi của minh - chưa thể hiểu như Bình Ngô Đại cáo, Hịch tướng sĩ, Nam Quốc sơn hà, nếu chỉ cốt tập đọc âm và chữ, thì không có mấy ý nghĩa.
5. SGK CNGD viết không theo một chương trình được xây dựng khoa học. Họ chưa có chương trình xuyên suốt từ lớp 1 đến lớp 12. Hiện tại chỉ có sách lớp 1, còn từ lớp 2 trở đi là chưa có, gặp đâu hay đó. Cái kế hoạch dạy lớp 1 ngữ âm, lớp 2 từ ngữ, lớp 3 cụm từ, lớp 4 đoạn văn, lớp 5 bài văn là một kế hoạch phi khoa học. Chúng tôi đề nghị GS Đại công bố chương trình CNGD từ lớp 1 đến lớp 12 cho mọi người cùng tham khảo và nếu muốn sử dụng phải được HĐQG thẩm định ( như SGK vậy).
Sách Tiếng Việt 1theo GS Đại, đã được viết 40 năm nay, từng được được đem sử dụng đại trà mà không qua thẩm định. Đó là điều vi phạm luật Giáo dục. Năm 2017 Bộ đã tổ chức thẩm định để khỏi phạm luật, Hội đồng đã chỉ ra nhiều bất cập, nhưng GS Đại đã không chấp nhận, ông đã quát măng biên tập viên đụng bút vaò bản thảo của ông, cuối cùng BTV từ chối không biên tạp sách của ông. Hội đồng cho phép sách của ông chỉ được sử dụng cho đến khi có chương trình mới. Đến nay chương trình mới đã ban hành, sách của ông đã hết thời hạn sử dụng. Thế mà ông lại đem sách củ, không sửa một chữ, đưa cho HĐTĐ, yêu cầu HĐTĐ thông qua, HĐTĐ đánh giá không đạt, ông đã kếu với báo chí rằng HĐTĐ không đủ trình độ đánh giá sách của ông; Ông kêu với thủ tướng, với chủ tịch nước và chủ tịch quốc hội, đòi hỏi phải có cơ chế riêng để sử dụng vô điều kiện sách của ông cho năm học mới. Đó là môt yêu cầu vô lí, vi phạm luật giáo dục, mà ai cũng thấy, chỉ riêng ông là không thấy..
Một cuốn sách như thế hoàn toàn không phù hợp với nội dung, tinh thần và phương pháp dạy học của chương trình mới. Vì thế Hội đồng thẩm định quốc gia đã bỏ phiếu là không đạt là hoàn toàn hợp lí. Song GS Đại vẫn không bằng lòng. Tôi nghĩ món nhuận bút của 900000 bộ sách lớp 1 vô cùng hấp dãn và GS không thể từ bỏ, cho dù nó vô lí đến mức nào.
Tôi biết nhiều người mặc nhận thầy Đại là giỏi, song chưa hề đọc sách của ông và SGK của ông. Tôi khuyên mọi người hãy đọc cuốn sách nhỏ của ông có tên là Sách giáo khoa đổi mới giáo dục toàn diện triệt để của ông viết để dạy toàn ngành giáo dục một cách kệch cỡm để biết về học vấn và con người ông. Đọc sách của ông tôi xin nhận xét như sau:
GS Hồ Ngọc Đại bấy lâu nay được làm chủ ở trường thực nghiệm, một mình một cõi, ở trên vạn người mà không ở dưới ai cả, muốn dạy gì thì dạy, muốn nói gì thì nói, suy nghĩ tự do, không khuôn phép, không nghe ai phản biện, không biết tôn trọng người khác, chỉ thích những kẻ phỉnh nịnh, do vậy khó mà đòi hỏi ở ông một tư duy khách quan và khoa học được, mặc dù khi nào ông cũng tự khoe là tư duy khoa học và chê người khác là tư duy kinh nghiệm.
Hà Nội, ngày 3 tháng 1 năm 2020

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